6-NBDG br Dueland S Guren MG Olsen DR Poulsen
 Dueland S, Guren MG, Olsen DR, Poulsen JP, Magne Tveit K. Radiation therapy induced changes in male sex hormone levels in rectal cancer patients. Radiother Oncol : J Eur Soc Ther Radiol Oncol 2003;68:249e53.
 Demling RH. The role of anabolic 6-NBDG for wound healing in catabolic states. J Burns Wounds 2005;4:e2e.  Buchli C, Al Abani M, Ahlberg M, Holm T, Fokstuen T, Bottai M, et al. Assessment of testicular dose during preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Acta Oncol 2016;55:496e501.
 Dindo D, Demartines N, Clavien P-A. Classification of surgical complications: a new proposal with evaluation in a cohort of 6336 patients and results of a survey. Ann Surg 2004;240:205e13.  Nilsson PJ, van Etten B, Hospers GA, Pahlman L, van de Velde CJ, Beets-Tan RG, et al. Short-course radiotherapy followed by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer–the RAPIDO trial. BMC Canc 2013;13:279.
 Lehtihet M, Arver S, Bartuseviciene I, Pousette A. S-testosterone decrease after a mixed meal in healthy men independent of SHBG and gonadotrophin levels. Andrologia 2012;44:405e10.
 Bhasin S, Cunningham GR, Hayes FJ, Matsumoto AM, Snyder PJ, Swerdloff RS, et al. Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95: 2536e59.
 Zakharov MN, Bhasin S, Travison TG, Xue R, Ulloor J, Vasan RS, et al. A multi-step, dynamic allosteric model of testosterone's binding to sex hormone binding globulin. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2015;399:190e200.
 Wu FC, Tajar A, Pye SR, Silman AJ, Finn JD, O'Neill TW, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis disruptions in older men are differentially linked to age and modifiable risk factors: the European Male Aging Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:2737e45.
 Sah BK, Chen MM, Peng YB, Feng XJ, Yan M, Liu BY, et al. Does testosterone prevent early postoperative complications after gastrointestinal surgery? World J Gastroenterol : WJG 2009;15:5604e9.
 Al-Tarrah K, Moiemen N, Lord JM. The influence of sex steroid hormones on the response to trauma and burn injury. Burns Trauma 2017;5:29.  Spratt DI, Cox P, Orav J, Moloney J, Bigos T. Reproductive axis suppression in acute illness is related to disease severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76: 1548e54.
 Dossett LA, Swenson BR, Heffernan D, Bonatti H, Metzger R, Sawyer RG, et al. High levels of endogenous estrogens are associated with death in the critically injured adult. J Trauma 2008;64:580e5.
 Longcope C, Kato T, Horton R. Conversion of blood androgens to estrogens in normal adult men and women. J Clin Investig 1969;48:2191e201.  Dhindsa S, Furlanetto R, Vora M, Ghanim H, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P. Low estradiol concentrations in men with subnormal testosterone concentrations and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011;34:1854e9.
 Ba ZF, Yokoyama Y, Toth B, Rue 3rd LW, Bland KI, Chaudry IH. Gender dif-ferences in small intestinal endothelial function: inhibitory role of androgens. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2004;286:G452e7.  Engeland CG, Sabzehei B, Marucha PT. Sex hormones and mucosal wound healing. Brain Behav Immun 2009;23:629e35.  Gilliver SC, Ashworth JJ, Ashcroft GS. The hormonal regulation of cutaneous wound healing. Clin Dermatol 2007;25:56e62.
Please cite this article as: Tapper J et al., Acute primary testicular failure due to radiotherapy increases risk of severe postoperative adverse events in rectal cancer patients, European Journal of Surgical Oncology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2019.07.023